Dr Carolyn Deere Birkbeck, Senior Research Associate
Dr. Carolyn Deere Birkbeck is a Senior Research Associate at the University of Oxford's Global Economic Governance Programme and a Senior Researcher at the Graduate Institute’s Global Governance Centre (Geneva), where she conducts research on the politics and governance of global trade, environment, sustainable development and intellectual property. At the Global Governance Centre, she leads a research project on the global governance and political economy of the plastic economy, supported by the Swiss Network of International Studies, and convenes its expert group of leading international experts from IGOs, stakeholder groups, and academia. In 2019, she was awarded a joint Associate Fellowship of Chatham House’s Global Economy and Finance departments and its Hoffmann Centre for Sustainable Resource Economy, where her work focuses on a forward-looking agenda on trade and sustainability.
Dr. Deere Birkbeck is the founder and Board Chair of Global Policy Reporting, a non-profit association that houses both Intellectual Property Watch (launched in 2004) and Health Policy Watch (launched in 2019) which provide independent, professional reporting on international intellectual property and global health policymaking respectively.
In 2011, she was the lead author of the first independent External Review of WIPO’s assistance to developing countries, called for by the organization’s Member States as part of the WIPO Development Agenda. In 2014, she was appointed to the University of Olso-Lancet Independent Panel on Global Governance for Health, with a focus on international trade and health. In 2015, she served as theme leader for the Conversations on the Global Trade and Investment Architecture, convened by the e15 initiative, a joint project of ICTSD and the World Economic Forum.
Before moving to academia, Dr. Deere Birkbeck served as an Assistant Director at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York where she was responsible for grantmaking on intellectual property, trade and sustainable development. In partnership with colleagues across the Foundation, she designed and coordinated the Foundation’s initiative to Promote a Fairer Course for Intellectual Property Policy and launched the Bellagio Series on Development and Intellectual Property Policy. During this time, Dr. Deere Birkbeck also co-founded the Funders Network on Trade and Globalization (FNTG) and served on its Steering Committee. Previously, she worked in Washington, D.C. for the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and as the Manager of the Congressional Staff Forum on International Development at the Overseas Development Council. She has been a consultant to a range of non-governmental and international organisations, including UNDP’s Office of the Human Development Report, the National Wildlife Federation, the Yale Centre for Environmental Law and Policy, the Open Society Institute and the South Centre. She was also previously a Senior Fellow at the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) in Geneva, Switzerland.
Dr. Deere Birkbeck is the author of The Governance of WIPO: A Reference Guide (Edward Elgar Press, 2016) and Governing the World Intellectual Property Organization: The Power Politics of Institutional Crisis and Reform (forthcoming). She is also the editor of Making Global Trade Governance Work for Development: Perspectives and Priorities from Developing Countries (Cambridge University Press 2011), author of The Implementation Game: The TRIPS Agreement and the Global Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries (Oxford University Press 2009, paperback 2011), and the co-editor (with Dan Esty) of Greening the Americas: NAFTA’s Lessons for Hemispheric Trade (MIT Press 2002). She holds a DPhil in International Relations (University College, Oxford), an MA in International Relations (Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies) and a first class honours degree in political economy from the University of Sydney.
Deere Birkbeck, C (Routledge, forthcoming). Governing the World Intellectual Property Organization: The Power Politics of Institutional Crisis and Reform.
Deere Birkbeck, C (Edward Elgar Press, 2016). The Governance of WIPO: A Reference Guide
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck (ed). 2011. Making Global Trade Governance Work for Development: Perspectives and Priorities from Developing Countries, Cambridge University Press.
Emily Jones, Carolyn Deere Birkbeck and Ngaire Woods, 2010. Manoeuvring at the Margins: Constraints Faced by Small States in International Trade Negotiations, London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
Carolyn Deere (2008) The Implementation Game: The TRIPS Agreement and the Global Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Carolyn Deere and Daniel C. Esty (eds.) (2002) Greening the Americas: NAFTA’s Lessons for the Hemispheric Trade, Boston: MIT Press
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck, 2019. WTO Reform: A Forward-looking Agenda on Environmental Sustainability in WTO Reform: Reshaping Global Trade Governance for 21st Century Challenges, edited by Teddy Soobramanien, Brendan Vickers, Hilary Enos-Edu. The Commonwealth.
Carolyn Deere, 2011. The pre-TRIPS context for developing country perspectives on intellectual property in the WTO: Setting the Context, in Research Handbook on Intellectual Property Law and the WTO, edited by Carlos Correa, Edward Elgar.
Carolyn Deere (2009) ‘Reforming Governance to Advance the WIPO Development Agenda‘, in Implementing WIPO’s Development Agenda, edited by J. de Beer, Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press/Centre for International Governance Innovation/International Development Research Centre
Deere, C. (2009) ‘Making WTO Reform Work for Developing Countries: Improving How the WTO’s Functions are Governed,’ in Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-first Century, edited by D. Steger, Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press/Centre for International Governance Innovation/International Development Research Centre
Carolyn Deere (2009) ‘The Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries‘ in Property And Sustainable Development: Development Agendas In A Changing World, Pedro Roffe, ed., Edward Elgar Press: Oxford: Oxford University Press
Carolyn Deere (2008) ‘The Politics of Intellectual Property Reform in Developing Countries: The Relevance of the World Intellectual Property Organization‘, in N. Netanel (ed) The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Carolyn Deere and R. Bayon (2005) ’Financing Environmental Protection in the Americas’, in Cordonnier Segger & Leichner Reynal in Beyond the Barricades: An Americas Trade and Sustainable Development Agenda, Ashgate Press
Carolyn Deere (2004) ‘Natural Resources Law: An International Sustainable Development Law Approach’, in Cordonnier Segger, M. and A. Khalfan (eds), Sustainable Development Law: Principles, Practices and Prospects, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Deere Birkbeck, C. and Marchant, R. (2011) “The Technical Assistance Principles of the WIPO Development Agenda and their Practical Implementation”, Journal of World Intellectual Property, 14 (2), March: 103-132.
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck, (2009) “Global Governance in the Context of Climate Change: The Challenges of Increasingly Complex Risk Parameters”, International Affairs, 85 (6) November, pp. 1173-1194.
Deere, C. (2004) “The FTAA: Time for Fairer, Greener Regional Integration”, BRIDGES Monthly Review, January, p13-15.
Deere, C. (2004) “Greening Trade in the Americas: Recommendations for the FTAA”, Journal of World Trade, January.
Deere, C. (2002) “Fisheries Trade and Sustainable Development: Conflict or Compatibility?” The Ocean Yearbook, University of Chicago Press, Volume XII, 2002.
Policy articles and reports
Intellectual Property, Technology and Knowledge-related Policy and Governance
Deere Birkbeck, C. 2014. Inside View – Strengthening WIPO’s Governance for the Next 50 Years: A Time for Action, Intellectual Property Watch, 26 September 2014.
Deere Birkbeck, C. 2014. WIPO’s Assistance To Developing Countries: Taking Forward The Unfinished Reform Agenda, Inside View - Intellectual Property Watch, 13 November 2014
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck and Santiago Roca, 2011. Independent External Review of WIPO Technical Assistance in the Area of Cooperation for Development, WIPO: Geneva.
Deere Birkbeck, C. (2011) “Trading Knowledge Fairly: Intellectual Property Rules for Global Prosperity and Environmental Sustainability”, in Peace and Prosperity through Global Trade, International Chamber of Commerce and Cambridge University Press: Paris.
Carolyn Deere (2006) ‘What Next for the Development Agenda at WIPO?‘, BRIDGES, January-February 2006
Carolyn Deere (2005) ‘Exploring Options and Modalities to Move the New Development Agenda Forward’, paper presented at a Dialogue hosted by ICTSD on “Intellectual property and sustainable development: Revisiting the agenda in a new context” as part of the Bellagio Series on Development and Intellectual Property Policy, held at the Rockefeller Foundation’s Bellagio Study and Conference Center on Lake Como, Italy, 24 – 28 October 2005
Carolyn Deere (2005) ‘Draft Elements for a Code of Conduct for Providers of IP-Related Technical Assistance’, paper presented at an ICTSD Dialogue on “Technical Cooperation for Intellectual Property Policy in Developing Countries”, held in Geneva, 11-12 July 2005
UNCTAD-ICTSD (2003) Intellectual Property Rights: Implications for Development, Policy Discussion Paper, UNCTAD: Geneva (Overview by C. Deere).
Carolyn Deere (2003) ‘Intellectual Property and Developing Countries’, Newspaper for the World Summit on the Information Society,’ world-information.org
Trade Policy and Governance
Deere Birkbeck, Carolyn and Kimberley Botwright, 2015. The Future of the Global Trade and Investment Architecture: Pursuing Sustainable Development in the Global Economy-Overview of Issues, Challenges and Debates. E15Initiative. Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and World Economic Forum
Deere-Birkbeck, Carolyn, 2013. How Should WTO Members Choose Among the Nine Candidates for Director-General? GEG Briefing Note.
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck, 2012. “The Future of the WTO: Governing Trade for a Fairer, More Sustainable Future” in R.Meléndez-Ortiz, C. Bellmann and M. Rodriguez Mendoza (eds.) The Future and the WTO: Confronting the Challenges. International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
Emily Jones and Carolyn Deere Birkbeck, 2011. Manoeuvring at the Margins: Constraints Faced By Small States in Trade Negotiations. GEG Briefing Paper
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck and Catherine Monagle (2009), Strengthening Multilateralism: A Mapping of Proposals on WTO Reform and Global Trade Governance, Geneva/Oxford: Global Economic Governance Programme and the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development.
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck and Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz (eds) (2009) Rebuilding Global Trade: Proposals for a Fairer, More Sustainable Future, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), Geneva and Global Economic Governance Programme, University College, Oxford
Carolyn Deere-Birkbeck (2009) ‘WTO Leadership Challenges in 2009,’ BRIDGES, 12, 6, December 2008- January 2009
Deere Birkbeck, C. (2009) “The G20's Trade Agenda: A Step Forward but Not Far Enough,” VoxEU.org, 3 April 2009
Deere Birkbeck, C. (2009) “WTO Leadership and Reform: The Need for a Ministerial Conference,” VoxEU.org, 1 February 2009
Deere Birkbeck, C. (2009) “From Crisis Management to Sustainable Development: Why We Need a WTO Ministerial Conference This Year”, 27 Mar 2009
Carolyn Deere (2005) ‘The FTAA: Time for Fairer, Greener Regional Integration,’ BRIDGES, 13-15
Carolyn Deere (2004) ‘Trade-Related Technical Assistance and Capacity Building,’ Background paper prepared for 2005 Human Development Report, UNDP, New York.
Carolyn Deere (2004) ‘Capacity Building and Policy Coherence: A Role for G20 Leaders?’, Paper prepared and presented at Conference on Agricultural Trade Reform and Development: A role for G20 Leaders, hosted by CIGI and the Global Economic Governance Programme at Oxford University, June 2004
Carolyn Deere (2003) ‘Greening the Americas, Policy Matters’, IUCN: The World Conservation Union, September 2003
Development, Sustainable Development and Globalisation
Carolyn Deere and E. Havice (2007) Fisheries, International Trade and Sustainable Development, Geneva: ICTSD
Carolyn Deere and E. Havice (2006) ‘Fisheries, Trade and Sustainable Development’, Policy Discussion Paper, ICTSD: Geneva
Carolyn Deere and M. Rand (2004) ‘Globalization and Grantmakers: The case for a social change approach’, Annual State of Philanthropy, Center for Responsive Philanthropy: New York
Carolyn Deere (2003) ‘Globalization and Funders, Why Should we Care? Demystifying the Issues, Actors and Funding Opportunities, Funders,’ Network on Trade and Globalization and the Environmental Grantmakers Association, New York (second edition)
C. De Fontaubert, I. Lutchman with Carolyn Deere and D. Downes (2003) ‘Achieving Sustainable Fisheries: Implementing the New International Legal Regime’, IUCN: Gland
Carolyn Deere (2001) ’Globalization and Funders, Why Should we Care? Demystifying the Issues, Actors and Funding Opportunities, Funders‘, Network on Trade and Globalization and the Environmental Grantmakers Association: New York
Carolyn Deere, CR. Wessells, K. Cochrane, P. Wallis, R. Willmann (2001) ‘Product certification and ecolabelling for fisheries sustainability,’ FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 422. Rome, FAO
Carolyn Deere (2000) Net Gains: International Trade, Sustainable Development and Fisheries, IUCN–World Conservation Union: Washington, D.C.
Carolyn Deere (1999) ‘Ecolabelling and Sustainable Fisheries’, IUCN: Washington, D.C. and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO): Rome (published in Spanish, French, English)
Carolyn Deere, R. Bayon, R. Norris and S. Smith (1999) ‘Environmental Funds: Lessons from the Past and Prospects for the Future’, Paper commissioned by the Global Environment Facility
Deere Birkbeck, C. 2016. 20 Years of Debate on Environment, Trade and Sustainable Development at the WTO: A Literature Review (1995-2015). GEG Working Paper 113.
Deere Birkbeck, C. 2015. Changing Demands on the Global Trade and Investment Architecture: Mapping an Evolving Ecosystem. GEG Working Paper 111.
Deere Birkbeck, C. 2015. WIPO’s Development Agenda and the Push for Development-oriented Capacitybuilding on Intellectual Property: How Poor Governance, Weak Management, and Inconsistent Demand Hindered Progress. GEG Working Paper 105.
Deere Birkbeck, C., 2014. The Governance of the World Intellectual Property Organization: A Reference Guide. GEG Working Paper 2014/93.
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck and Emily Jones, 2012. Beyond the Eighth Ministerial Conference on the WTO: A Forward Looking Agenda for Development, GEG Working Paper 2012/69, May 2012.
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck & Meg Harbourd (2011). Developing Country Coalitions in the WTO: Strategies for Improving the Influence of the WTO’s Weakest and Poorest Members. GEG Working Paper 2011/63 (July 2011).
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck (2011). Development-orientated Perspectives on Global Trade Governance: A Summary of Proposals for Making Global Trade Governance Work for Development. GEG Working Paper 2011/64 (July 2011).
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck (2009), Reinvigorating Debate on WTO Reform: The Contours of a Functional and Normative Approach to Analyzing the WTO System, July 2009, GEG Working Paper 2009/50.
Carolyn Deere Birkbeck (2009) ‘La mise en application de l’Accord sur les ADPIC en Afrique francophone’, WP2009/48
Carolyn Deere (2006) ‘The Politics of TRIPS Implementation in francophone Africa’, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association; San Diego, March 22-25, 2006